POLICE Magazine Supplements

Civil Unrest 2017

Magazine for police and law enforcement

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S P E C I A L R E P O R T: C I V I L U N R E S T 5 the target. Failure to heed this warning can cause severe injury. is is especially true if officers use the product outside the dis- tances specified by the manufacturer. e weapon delivery zones the manufacturers specify are provided as a guide for agencies in selecting their non-lethal weapon options and to assist officers. is does not mean you cannot deploy these non-lethal munitions closer. However, the specified minimum and maximum ranges are the distances experts have determined will yield the optimum level of psy- chological and physiological effectiveness upon the subject with an acceptable level of safety. USING FORCE Force options are the ability to use verbalization skills and physical alternatives ➔ Non-escalation methods are options used when establish- ing contact with the crowd. ➔ De-escalation strategies are used when the initial contact with the protesters escalates from contact to conflict. ➔ Disengagement tactics are used when the crowd is un- able to be managed effectively within the assembled officers' capabilities. ➔ Stabilization and/or control techniques are used when the police line is unable to disengage from the protesters and the show of organized force formations and verbalization skills are still effective. ➔ Escalation tactics such as the deployment of non-lethal weapons are used when the police line is unable to disengage from protesters and the show of organized formations and ver- balization skills become ineffective. ➔ Deadly force is the final option. It is used only when officers or civilians are in immediate danger of death or serious injury from violent subjects. FORCE OPTIONS Presence (formations) is the show of organized force through formations and is the first step toward non-escalation methods to communicate with the crowd. A group of officers is called a line formation when the officers are standing side by side. e echelon right or left formation is when officers stand in a 45-de- gree diagonal to the crowd. e wedge formation is officers in a V-shaped alignment or in a diamond alignment, and it is used to rescue officers or others in danger by inserting a group of of- ficers into the crowd. Verbalization is precision word choice used in a crowd to promote cooperation, create collaboration, or gain compliance in managing the overall safety of the officers and protesters. Other force options include: ➔ Empty hands And non-lethal weapons and munitions, including: Riot shields that provide a temporary barrier between the officers and the protesters. Constructed of various transparent plastics, riot shields range in size from 36 to 48 inches in length and are rectangular or circular. Some can be locked together to reinforce the line. ey can be used not just to protect officers but also to push the crowd away. Chemical aerosols are designed to affect subjects emotion- Zone 2—Potential reat ere is now 10 to 50 feet between the police line and the pro- testers. is gives the officers on the front line more time to react and a greater field of view. However, at this distance the protesters are still close enough to throw objects and physically engage the front line. Zone 3—Possible reat ere is now 50 to 100 feet between the police line and the protesters. is distance provides the officers on the front line with a reasonable field of vision and enough time to react to an attack. ey can also communicate with the protesters using speakers and other technology. Zone 4—Moderate reat ere is 100 to 150 feet between the police and the protesters. Even though the protesters are as much as half a football field from the police line, there is a still a moderate level of threat to the officers in the line and other protesters in the area if some- one in the crowd decides to commit a violent act. Zone 5—Unlikely reat ere is 150 to 200 feet between the police line and the protest- ers. At this distance, officers in the police line have a greater reactionary time to identify possible dangers and a broad field of view for spotting potential threats. EFFECTIVE AND SAFE RANGE Factory warnings from non-lethal weapon manufacturers should always be followed. Many manufacturers will state on their munitions that they are not intended to be fired directly at PHOTO: ©ZUMA PRESS

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